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There are lots of ways you can select elements in CSS. The most basic selection is by tag name, like p { } . Almost anything more specific than a tag selector uses attributes — class and both select on those attributes on HTML elements. But class and ID aren't the only attributes developers can select. We can use any of an element's attributes as selectors.

Attribute selection has a special syntax. Here's an example:

That's an exact match selector that will only select links with the exact href attribute value of "".

exact match

# The Seven Different Types

Attribute selectors are case-sensitive, and are written inside brackets [] .

There are seven different types of matches you can find with an attribute selector, and the syntax is different for each. Each of the more complex attribute selectors build on the syntax of the exact match selector — they all start with the attribute name and end with an equals sign followed by the attribute value(s), usually in quotes. What goes between the attribute name and equals sign is what makes the difference among the selectors.

Value contains: attribute value contains a term as the only value, a value in a list of values, or as part of another value. To use this selector, add an asterisk (*) before the equals sign. For example, img[alt*="art"] will select images with the alt text "abstract art " and "athlete starting a new sport", because the value "art" is in the word "starting".

Value contains:

Value is in a space-separated list: value is either the only attribute value, or is a whole value in a space-separated set of values. Unlike the "contains" selector, this selector will not look for the value as a word fragment. To use this selector, add a tilde (~) before the equals sign. For example, img[alt~="art"] will select images with the alt text "abstract art " and " art show", but not "athlete starting a new sport" (which the "contains" selector would select).

Value is in a space-separated list:

Value starts with: attribute value starts with the selected term. To use this selector, add a caret (^) before the equals sign. Don't forget, case-sensitivity matters. For example, img[alt^="art"] will select images with the alt text "art show" and "artistic pattern", but not an image with the alt text "Arthur Miller" because "Arthur" begins with a capital letter.

Value starts with:

The bottom line is that there is no binary divide, and no single overriding factor for determining such a divide. ICT does not exist as an external variable to be injected from the outside to bring about certain results. Rather, it is woven in a complex manner in social systems and processes. And, from a policy standpoint, the goal of using ICT with marginalized groups is not to overcome a digital divide, but rather to further a process of social inclusion. To accomplish this, it is necessary to "focus on the transformation, not the technology" [ 9 ]. For all these reasons, I join with others (e.g., DiMaggio and Hargittai, 2001; Jarboe, 2001) in recognizing the historical value of the digital divide concept (i.e., that it helped focus attention on an important social issue) while preferring to embrace alternate concepts and terminology that more accurately portray the issues at stake and the social challenges ahead.

The alternate framework I suggest is that of Social inclusion and exclusion are prominent concepts in European discourse [ 10 ]. They refer to the extent that individuals, families, and communities are able to fully participate in society and control their own destinies, taking into account a variety of factors related to economic resources, employment, health, education, housing, recreation, culture, and civic engagement.

Social inclusion is a matter not only of an adequate share of resources, but also of "participation in the determination of both individual and collective life chances" (Stewart, 2000). It overlaps with the concept of socioeconomic equality, but is not equivalent to it. There are many ways that the poor can have fuller participation and inclusion, even if they lack an equal share of resources. At the same time, even the well-to-do may face problems of social exclusion, due to reasons of political persecution or discrimination based on age, gender, sexual preference, or disability. The concept of social inclusion does not ignore the role of class, but recognizes that a broad array of other variables help shape how class forces interact. Though an historical treatment of the term is beyond the scope of this article, one could argue that the concept of social inclusion reflects particularly well the imperatives of the current information era, in which issues of identity, language, social participation, community, and civil society have taken central stage (Castells, 1997).

What role, then, can access to technology play in promoting social inclusion? That depends in large measure on how we define "access." The most common model for thinking about access to technology is that based on ownership of, or availability of, a device, in this case a computer. Physical devices can diffuse relatively quickly, and, in some cases, equally; note for example the almost universal degree of television ownership in the U.S. among both rich and poor. However, the device model has several flaws, starting with the fact that the actual purchase price of a computer is only the small part of what can be considered the which includes the price of software, maintenance, peripherals, and, in institutional settings, training, planning, and administration (see comments by Kling in Patterson and Wilson, 2000) - not to mention the price of replacement hardware and software due to corporate-planned product obsolescence. More importantly, other barriers beyond affordability of computers (or of the broader computing package) will continue to play a major role in fostering digital inequality. These barriers include differential access to broadband telecommunications; differences in knowledge and skills in using computers, or in attitudes toward using them; inadequate online content available for the needs of low-income citizens, especially in diverse languages; and governmental controls or limitations on unrestricted use of the Internet in many parts of the world (see discussion in DiMaggio and Hargittai, 2001).

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